HOW TO PREVENTCHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE DUE TO DIABETES
What is chronic kidney disease?
The final stage of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is kidney failure for which diabetes is the most common cause. CKD and kidney failure can happen even when diabetes is controlled. People in India are predisposed to be affected with CKD when suffering with diabetes.
Over several years after being affected with diabetes, people who are developing CKD will have small amounts of protein into their urine. This is the first stage of CKD called micro albuminuria. During this stage, kidney is usually functioning normally.
As the disease progresses, it is called macro albuminuria or proteinuria where the leak of albumin is high. As the protein discharge increases, the kidneys ability to filter comes down resulting in retention of the body waste. This in turn damages the kidney and the blood pressure rises as well.
In the first 10 years of diabetes kidney damage is rarely seen. About 15-25 years pass before the kidney failure occurs. For people living with diabetes for more than 25 years, the risk of ever developing it increase.
People with diabetes should be screened regularly for kidney disease. The two key markers for kidney disease are eGFR (estimated glomerular filtration rate) and urine albumin.
Effects of Hypertension on CKD
High blood pressure, or hypertension, plays a key role in kidney problems in people with diabetes. It also accelerates the progress of a kidney disease if it already exists.
Hypertension is not only a cause of kidney disease but also a result of the damage caused by the disease. Due to the effects of kidney disease, physical changes in kidneys increases blood pressure.
Early detection and treatment of hypertension is essential for diabetics.
How diabetics can prevent and slow down CKD?
Moderate protein diet
Excessive protein consumption for people with diabetes can be harmful. For people with greatly reduced kidney function, a diet with low protein quantity can delay kidney failure. A strict diet regimen suggested by your healthcare provider must be followed to ensure adequate nutrition.
Strict blood glucose level management
Intensive management of blood glucose or glycaemic control, has been effective for people with diabetes, especially for those in the early stages of CKD.
In the human body, food is normally converted to glucose which is the source of energy. Glucose needs insulin a hormone produced by pancreas to enter the cells. If the body does not produce enough insulin or does not respond to the insulin that is present, glucose is not processed. This glucose remains in the bloodstream which is diagnosed as diabetes.
Following an intensive blood glucose management regimen, blood glucose levels must be maintained at normal. This regimen includes, frequent blood glucose level testing, administration of insulin throughout the day with careful monitoring of food intake and physical activity. A strict diet and activity plan long with regular consultation with healthcare team are essential.
Above all your attitude and commitment to your health and wellness play a vital role in your quality of life.
Article by- Dr. Ravi Andrews, DNB- Nephrology, Consultant Nephrologist